The last part of our tour takes us to Cryptozoology where Woetzel uses alleged reports made by those who claimed to have seen dinosaur-like creatures in remote areas of the world as evidence for dinosaurs living with humans recently, never mind the monsters having features true dinosaurs don't have and never mind the complete lack of physical evidence for their existence. Creationists would gleefully present such alleged sightings under a false assertion that if such animals like the okapi and the coelacanth are found and confirmed to exist, then there's reason to believe that dinosaurs and their contemporaries could be seen alive today, never mind the complete lack of evidence for their existence. The Cryptozoology page only focuses on the history of confirmed discoveries of certain types of animals from the giant squid to the mega mouth shark. These confirmed discoveries are used to the creationist's advantage to make the lay person believe that since these animals are found and confirm to exist, then chances are the alleged dinosaurs like Mokele Mbembe can be found and confirm to exist, which creationists hope it would discredit evolution because to them it (two fingers waving)"requires"(/two fingers waving) everyone to believe that dinosaurs lived and died out 60 million years before the first humans came. Evolution doesn't require anything like that. It requires nothing. If there was such a discovery that confirms the existence of dinosaurian cryptids, instead of abandoning evolution, scientists would engage in studying such creatures to learn how did these cryptids evolve to cope with humans in the modern world. Problem is, unlike the giant squid and the okapi, there is no physical evidence to confirm the existence of the likes of Mokele Mbembe, the Loch Ness Monster, or Emela-ntouka. All of what they present are made up of only made up reports coming from natives who were paid to give outsiders what they want to hear, alleged reports that don't describe dinosaurs at all, fake, blurred, questionable photos, and zero physical remains. Still, this doesn't stop the likes of Woetzel from making up hoaxes and imaginary scenarios about dinosaurs being alive and well in remote areas of the world and falsely parade them as truth.
With our tour of the dinosaur section done, we now backtrack to the main map area where we find many sections of the "park" containing alleged dinosaurs said to be found alive and well in remote areas of the world. Our first stop is the Apatosaur paddock, where there are alleged reports of large sauropod-like animals seen alive today in the African nations of Congo, Cameroon and Gabal, and the Amazon region of Brazil. Here Woetzel claims,
"The Apatosaurus is a member of the giant, plant-eating dinosaurs. It may still be better known by the misguided name Brontosaurus. Apatosaurus and other giants such as Diploducus and Brachiosaurus roamed the swamps of the western United States in a bygone era."
Sorry, Woetzel. It is now known that sauropods were built to live on dry, solid ground and avoided the swamps altogether. Woetzel claims the sauropod could most likely be the animal "described by Job (the oldest book in the Bible) to be the largest animal of all—'Behemoth'." but it is clearly known from the last post that Behemoth was not a sauropod, but a supernatural creature of Jewish folklore. Woetzel then gives a list of alleged sauropods said to roam remote areas of the world, alleged sightings claimed to be "[sic] good historical evidence that these dinosaurs have co-existed with man" along with the mythical Behemoth while being ignorant of the complete lack of physical evidence for the existence of such monsters.
The first alleged sighting involves a sauropod-like creature known as Mokele Mbembe whose name comes from the native word meaning "one who stops the flow of rivers." The creature is described to be an "elephant-sized creature with smooth, brownish-gray skin, a long, flexible neck, a very long tail as powerful as a crocodile's, and three-clawed feet the size of frying pans." What's neglected in Woetzel's description is that the cryptid is said to have one large horn growing on its nose and a comb that resembles a rooster's. Real sauropods don't have horns or rooster combs. They have 5 toes with one clawed fore feet and two to three clawed hind feet. Both are much bigger than frying pans. In fact, the actual footprints are so big that a small child can easily fit into one with ease. Real sauropod necks are much stiffer than what is described on the cryptid and the actual skins of sauropods are much rougher, scaly, bumpy, and in some cases armory than the cryptid's smooth skin. The tails of the real sauropods resemble that of a whip than a crocodile's tail. The basin the cryptid is said to inhabit is much too shallow for any large monster to submerge itself in. And as mentioned before, sauropods are land dwellers who spend all their lives on land. Like elephants, however, sauropods do occasionally swim, but not in swamps. The cryptid is said to "feed on the nutlike fruit of a riverbank plant and keep to the deep pools and subsurface caves of waters in this largely unexplored region ." In reality, if a sauropod tries to submerge itself in the water, the weight of the water would crush the lungs, killing it. The cryptid is known to fight and kill hippos, but never eats any of them since it is a vegetarian.
One day, a team of explorers went to a native village and show to the villagers pictures of dinosaurs to help them identify who Mokele Mbembe was. The natives were quick to identify a picture of a sauropod dinosaur as Mokele Mbembe. But that only happened in one village. What about the natives living in other villages of the Congo? Did they identified the sauropod dinosaur as Mokele Mbembe just like the one village did? The answer is "no." The other natives did not identify Mokele Mbembe as a sauropod. Instead, they either identify the creature as a river spirit or a rhinoceros rarely seen wandering into parts of the Congo. Only one village identify Mokele Mbembe as a sauropod. I think it's likely because they were entertaining the outside guests for pay and were eager to give them what they want to hear regardless of what the other villages really think of the creature. Many expeditions are made to search for the elusive creature, only to come back either empty handed or have their hands full of incontrovertible "evidence" for the existence of the creature which turns out to be nothing more than fakes. Note how Woetzel have erroneously claimed that the incident involving a band of natives killing a Mokele Mbembe happened in 1999 while the alleged incident actually happened in 1959 where a group of natives succeeds in killing a Mokele Mbembe and tried to eat its flesh, only to die probably from probably food poisoning a short while later.
Then Woetzel makes another error claiming,
"In the fall of 1981 Herman Regusters led a team into Lake Tele and returned with droppings, footprint casts and sound recording unlike any animal known to the Congo Basin area "
In reality, the Regusters and his team found nothing but gorilla and elephant droppings and tracks. No giant sauropods. Crocodiles are also sighted in the area as well. One of the sounds the crocodile makes is the one most likely made up that alleged sound recording Woetzel has on the page although this claim made by The Regusters is conflicted by another claim that said that the creature is known to make no sounds at all.
The next 2 cryptids is said to inhabit the African areas of Cameroon and Gabon, where the natives claimed to see 2 river-dwelling dinosaurs made up of sauropod-like creatures the size between a hippopotamus and an elephant with a long and very flexible neck and a long muscular tail like that of an alligator. Remember, real sauropods have stiffened necks, a whiplash tail, and the inability to adapt in rivers and lakes, nor can they submerge in deep water. The cryptids known as N'yamala and Jago-nini is likely the same as Mokele Mbembe except these creatures are alleged to come out of the water and devour people— a direct contradiction to the original claim about Mokele Mbembe being only a vegetarian.
The next part tells about an alleged 2000 expedition to Cameroon made by Woetzel who claims to visited a Cameroon pygmy village filled with people who claimed to greatly fear and revered a large creature they called Li'kela-bembe, which is likely another Mokele mbembe, said to be as big as an elephant with a snake-like head and a long, powerful tail (Real sauropods like Diplodocus have horse-like heads and are much bigger than an elephant). The cryptid is said to feast on molombo fruit and pummels crocodiles with its serpentine tail.
Although Woetzel claims there are "numerous eyewitness accounts" to such sightings, all these accounts of seeing alleged living river dwelling dinosaurs do not mean a hill of beans if no physical evidence for the existence of creatures are found and thus far, not a single trace of physical evidence for such existence have been found. Therefore the so-called "numerous eyewitness accounts" are nothing more than made up stories.
Woetzel then tells about another expedition to search for Mokele Mbembe made in 2001,
"A follow up expedition was initiated by the BBC in 2001. The most recent trip, led by Canadian Brian Sass, discovered an island in the Dja River which contained nesting caves like those identified by Mackal. They took casts of footprints and photographs of the caves (bottom right) and actually had a brief encounter with the elusive monster of Cameroon as it swam past their dugout canoe toward its lair."
In reality what they actually found are nesting burrows made by dwarf crocodile mothers who dug up those burrows and lay their eggs inside. Real sauropods cannot burrow. They raised their eggs and young in rookeries made up of basin shaped nests similar to the nests belonging to Maiasaura.
The 2001 expedition is lead by CryptoSafari and the British Columbia Scientific Cryptozoology Club (BCSCC) accompanied by the BBC camera crew. They never found the creature, nor evidence supporting the creature's existence. In Cameroon, they visited a pygmy village where everyone there have claimed to have seen Mokele Mbembe and described it to be a "huge creature with a long neck, massive body and a rather indignant temperament which manifested itself when the beast was disturbed." When the explorers showed them a picture of a pygmy with a sauropod next to it taken from a book, they said nothing other than, "Oh, look its a pygmy." But when the explorers show a picture of a Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus, the villages instantly shouted, "Mokele-mbembe!" They described Mokele Mbembe as have "spines along the back of the head, down the neck and along the back. (a direct contradiction to the claims of the alleged dinosaur having just smooth skin)" And then added,
"They were herbivores by nature and were only dangerous if humans disturbed them while they were eating. The animal would use its tail to lash out at humans and often upset canoes. They described the back rather differently from the back of the brachiosaur in our illustrative catalogue ["catalog" misspelled]. They described it as being rounded so when the animal rose from the water its back would resemble a waterfall cascading down."
The explorers said the descriptions closely matched the descriptions of Diplodocus than Brachiosaurus since one Diplodocus fossil is found with spines along the neck and back. They assert that other accounts of Mokele Mbembe only describe juveniles and the "cock's comb," which is also one of the cryptid's descriptions Woetzel failed to mention, is just a development of the dorsal frill of an adolescent. To me, this is a direct example of natives being paid to give the explorers what they want to hear. The way they separated and questioned the villagers about the alleged dinosaur gave me such an idea.
Sauropods like Diplodocus are all terrestrials. As mentioned before, it is impossible for sauropods like Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus to submerge themselves in the water or else the weight of the water would crush the lungs, killing them. It is not known whether all sauropods have spines on their backs or not, but we do know that some sauropod dinosaurs have armor and bony spines on their bodies for protection against their enemies.
The third page just comes to show how creationists will believe everything they hear when it comes to urban legends, paranormal monsters, and mythical creatures regardless of how fanciful these stories really are. Woetzel first mention an article from an old, irrelevant issue of Scientific American about a tribe of natives fighting and killing a beast known as the Bolivian Saurian, a 3 headed, fully armored monster.
"The Brazilian Minister at La Paz, Bolivia, had remitted to the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Rio photographs of drawings of an extraordinary saurian killed on the Beni after receiving thirty-six balls. By order of the President of Bolivia the dried body, which had been preserved in Asuncion, was sent to La Paz." The "monster" was reported to be twelve meters long (39 ft) from snout to point of the tail, which latter was flattened. Its head [one of them] resemblance the head of a dog and its legs were short, ending with formidable claws. The legs and abdomen sported a kind of scale armor, and all the back is protected by a still thicker and double cuirass [breastplate made of a few metal pieces that covers the person's chest], starting from behind the ears of the anterior head, and continuing to the tail. The neck is long, and the belly large and almost dragging on the ground."
The story, despite being told in Scientific American, is phony one. It's all about a fantasy animal based on either a crocodile killing or a discovery of prehistoric fossils that caught the imaginations of the Brazilian locals. Yet, Woetzel believes that it's not uncommon for people to find animals with multiple heads. If it's not uncommon, then why is it rare for an animal to have two heads? An animal with two heads are an anomaly just like human twins that are born conjoined. It is very rare to see people and animals that are born conjoined. Such anomalies unfortunately don't last long. An animal born with two heads will never survive in the wild and 75% of human twins that are conjoined will wind up either stillborn or dead within 24 hours.
The second story involves another encounter with a so-called "living dinosaur" along the Amazon River made by a famous explorer named Percy Fawcett (1867-1945) whose stories of his explorations in South America become inspirations for science fiction writers and movie producers to create adventure tales of Indiana Jones, Professor Challenger of Sir Author Conan Doyle's The Lost World, and others. These stories are taken from a book, The Rivers Ran East: Travelers' Tales Classics published in 2001.
"In 1907 Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Fawcett of the British Army was sent to mark the boundaries between Brazil and Peru. He was an officer in the Royal Engineers and was well known as a [sic] meticulous recorder of facts. In the Beni Swamps of Madre de Dios Colonel P. H. Fawcett saw an animal he believed to be Diplodocus… The Diplodocus story is confirmed by many of the tribes east of the Ucayali, a region covered by Clark."
But did the tribes present any evidence for the alleged Diplodocus they claimed to have seen? Nope, not a single thing. Actually, according to Fawcett, the animal he allegedly saw might be a Diplodocus, an 80 foot long, 25 ton dinosaur (actually Diplodocus measures 90 feet long and weighed 10-16 tons), whom he thought might still be in existence as it was an eater of aquatic plants, which grow profusely in the region.
But even "a (sic) meticulous recorder of facts" can make up fanciful stories without proof of any physical evidence for creatures and places that are only found in the imaginative mind of Fawcett himself. Much of what is told in Percy Fawcett's writings are fictional, including his claims about meeting a giant anaconda, bigger than any anaconda known, a man who claims to be over 2,000 years old, and a discovery of a lost city of "Z" (as he calls it) located somewhere in the Masso Grosso region which was the last thing he claimed to have ever seen before his disappearance on May 29, 1925.
Obviously Fawcett is completely unaware that Diplodocus is native only to North America with teeth suitable for stripping leaves off of trees and fern stems like a rake. The only sauropod fossils found in the region were Titanosaurids, armored dinosaurs that detest swamps just like Diplodocus who prefer to dine on plants growing on dry land. Their compact 5-toed feet would not withstand the soft grounds of the swamps and would helplessly bogged the dinosaurs down if they ever tried to venture into the swamps. Note the illustration made by Fawcett's son Brian who claims to have allegedly seen huge, 3-toed, freshly made foot tracks near the edge of a river in the swamp, but never saw what could have made them; the expedition was forced to turn back and not follow the footprints lest they find themselves at the mercy of a large three-toed non-existent "dinosaur" roaming the remote area of the region.
There were indeed three-toed dinosaurs that once roamed South America, but not during the Fawcett's time. One of the best known three-toed dinosaurs that once lived in South America 90 million years ago was Giganotosaurus, one of the largest carnivorous dinosaurs ever known. It was the apex predator of the South American region, preying on large titanosaurids like Argentinosaurus that lived alongside this Carcarodontosaurid bad boy. In reality, carnivorous dinosaurs had 4 toed feet with the first claw being smaller than the 3 main clawed toes that supported the weight. If the alleged three-toed tracks were real, they should also have the dewclaw printed right alongside the rest of the toes and heel. But that's not what the illustration show. The illustration shows only three-toed feet and what appears to be tail tracks lining the middle of the trackway. In reality, no dinosaur dragged their tails. Apparently, this is one of those stories and reports Brian made up to provide excitement and entertainment for the reader.
The third story involves another of Fawcett's tall tale legends told by Leonard Clark from his book The Rivers Ran East where in it is Colonel Fawcett and the Brazilian locals' encounter with what the locals call the Madidi monster,
"Speaking of reptiles, old boy, Colonel Fawcett reached the eastern edge of Madre de Dios, out where you are going. It is a country of swamps apparently. One day while running his dugouts through it, he saw a great reptilian head rise out of the jungle, but before he could shoot, the head was lowered. From the noise the beast made getting away, he took it to be some sort of dinosaur. His Indians revolted and it was necessary to return to Mato Grosso. When I smiled, he presently added, ‘Don't be too sure they don't exist - we hear a great many stories from the Indians here!'"
He likely saw a large head of an anaconda snake coming up from the water. However, the monster in one of those so-called "a great many [albeit— alleged] stories" which is said to consume vegetation and attack canoes invading their territory, is quite possibly the same creature as the alleged mythical Diplodocus mentioned above.
Always do creationists and cryptozoologists gathered up just eyewitness reports spread about by word-of-mouth. Never, not even once, do they found any credible, genuine physical evidences that confirm these accounts to be real.
The forth story all made up by Woetzel who claims to have launched another expedition to South America to gather up more "eyewitness" and no physical evidence for the alleged sauropod dinosaur.
"In 2005, Genesis Park staff mounted an exploratory trip up Amazon tributaries along the border of Brazil & Bolivia. Villagers and indigenous communities were contacted from the Rio Madre De Dios, up the Rio Beni and towards the Rio Madidi. Very little knowledge of any long-necked reptilian creature was uncovered, but what reports were received matched the information obtained about the mokele-mbembe from the expeditions into Africa. A strange dinosaur-like image has been found adorning a Peruvian water bottle that dates from 200AD."
You call that a sauropod dinosaur!? I don't think so! That so-called sauropod dinosaur is strikingly similar to the photos of ancient pottery depicting such monsters with heads on each end of the body. And since when do sauropods have 2 heads, one on each end of the body? Since when did sauropods have feline bodies with 5 to 4 claws, stripes, spines on the bottom of the tails and feline-type heads with strange whiskers and spiky horns on their faces? Friends, this is a prefect example of Woetzel knowing nothing of the true concept of dinosaurs while stupidly regarding any mythical animal made up of modern animal composites as dinosaurs for no reason other than because they're shaped like one, never mind all the features it has that dinosaurs don't really have, including heads on each end of the body.
There is a legendary water monster that must have inspired Fawcett to invent tales of swamp bound Diplodocus and giant anacondas roaming the Amazon known as the yacu-mama. This water creature, resembling massive snake measuring about 50 paces (227 feet) long and twelve yards in girth, lives in the lagoons and the Amazon River where it draws into its mouth anything that comes near it within a hundred yards (or paces), including vegetation and humans. Because of this, the natives had to avoid the water unless they blow a conch horn to trick the creature into thinking another yacu-mama is nearby. The creature would always respond to the sound of the horn within its hearing range, thus allowing the natives to swim and bathe in peace.
At the conclusion of the sauropod section, Woetzel asserts,
"It is quite likely that some of the large sauropod dinosaur species (like Diplodocus and Apatosaurus) were merely variations of the same created kind. Similarly, despite the different names from Africa to South America, the general description of supposed living dinosaurs remains the same: about 30 ft in length with a long neck, snake-like head and long, flexible tail."
Except that Diplodocus in reality is measured about 90-120 feet long (depending on species) and has a horse like head. Apatosaurus measures about 70 feet in length and weighed 30 tons. Both dinosaurs are Diplodocids are natives only to North America. The sauropods that are natives to South America are the Titanosaurs, massive Cretaceous dinosaurs, some measuring over 100 feet long.
"Apparently these dinosaurs are similar in form to their counterparts in the fossil record. Indeed, the creation model would predict that they could not evolve into a different kind of animal. In fact, living fossils are often smaller (and arguably less "fit") than their preserved ancestors, again conforming to the creation model."
Ever heard of clades, Woetzel? You know, a group of organisms with similar features that descended from a single common ancestor? Obviously you don't. You just assume that evolution is false because every animal in a group have bodies and features similar to each other and that evolution (two fingers waving)"requires"(/two fingers waving) each individual to evolve from a different type of animal. Sorry, Woetzel. Evolution requires nothing and doesn't not work that way.
Right above the Apatosaur Paddock, is the Ceratopsian Paddock where we are presented with two alleged African cryptids resembling ceratopsians like Triceratops which are, in reality, only native to North America. These cryptids are alleged to live in Africa alongside the alleged Mokele Membe and like Mokele Mbembe, these alleged cryptids are based on rare rhinoceros sightings in the Congo basin.
In the main Ceratopsian Paddock page, Woetzel makes a brief outdated description of ceratopsians,
"The Ceratopsians, or "frilled dinosaurs," are members of a family of large, plant-eating dinosaurs that vary in size from the tiny Protoceratops to the famous Triceratops. They have a parrot-like beak at the front of the jaw and sport a wide diversity of horns and frills, from the Chasmosaurus (depicted right) whose neck frill extended halfway down its back to the horn-less Pachyrhinosaurus. Paleontologists believe that their horns were utilized in combat while the neck frill appeared intimidating, perhaps protecting them from the large bipedal carnivores. The Ceratopsians weighed several tons, as much as modern elephants, but their short feet and hind-leg sprawl made them slower and not as tall."
Ceratopsians have fully erect postures that allow ceratopsians to move quickly and gallop at an estimate speed of 40 MPH. Although their horns are used to fight off tyrannosaurids, the horns of the males are also used to engage in sparing matches with one another. They lock horns, push and shove until one male gives up and retreats, leaving the victor to either mate with the female or establish leadership in the herd.
Only two [sic] "credible reports from Africa that these creatures persist even to the present" are presented here. Both are anything but credible. The first one discusses a swamp-bound, aquatic ceratopsian (that isn't) living in the Likouala swamp somewhere in the Congo basin named Emela-ntouka (killer of elephants). This alleged cryptid is described to be,
"…a ferocious creature, larger than a buffalo that was considered the most dangerous animal by the Kelle pygmies. [according to the Chief Game Inspector Lucien Blancou who wrote in the 1950s']'…the presence of a beast which sometimes disembowels elephants is also known, but it does not seem to be prevalent there now as in the preceding districts. A specimen was supposed to have been killed twenty years ago at Dongou, but on the left of the Ubangi and in the Belgian Congo.'"
As mentioned before, this could be based on a sightings of a rare rhinoceros that adapt into aquatic life in the region.
"In 1981 Dr. Roy Mackal traveled to the Congo searching for the rumored sauropod dinosaur Mokele-mbembe. But he was surprised to hear reports of another mysterious animal called the Emela-ntouka or "killer of elephants". The natives in the northwest region of the Likoula swamp told how it would gore elephants with its single horn. Mackal contemplation that it was a ceratopsian was cast in doubt by the pygmies not recollecting a neck frill. The description, however, does not fit a rhinoceros which has a short tail and does not have a true horn composed of bone or ivory. It is fused keratin (hair) and it seldom comes of the winner in a confrontation with elephants."
Neither did it fit the ceratopsians because of being far less adaptive to aquatic lifestyle, their legs being less stumpier, their reptilian tails far from resembling a crocodile's, and their backs are more curved than the cryptid's. Their bodies are far from being shaped like a rhinoceros in great contrast to Emela-ntouka which is described to have a body exactly the shape of a rhino's. Plus, Emela-ntouka is sometimes described to have tusks in their mouths other than a single horn. Certain rhinoceroses do have tusks, but no known African rhino is found to have tusks, except for maybe a rare aquatic rhino of unknown species that could be the Emela-ntouka the natives spoke about. In fact, some researchers including Loren Coleman believe that Emela-ntouka sightings could have been the result of seeing a rhino that adapted to a semi-aquatic lifestyle.
Woetzel and Mackal, without reasonable proof, only asserts that the cryptid is a ceratopsian resembling either Monoclonius or Centrosaurus while being ignorant of Centrosaurus and Monoclonius having a large neck frill made of bone, not skin, with large openings covered with a large sheet of skin. The modern [sic] reports "obtained by Genesis Park staff during a recent expedition to Cameroon" about the creature having a frill is nothing but a direct result of Woetzel bribing and brainwashing the natives to change the creature's descriptions around to give what the creationists want the natives to describe Emela-ntouka as regardless of the ceratopsians' true anatomy based on fossil evidence.
The edge of the Centrosaurus frill is decorated with rows of small spikes with two top backward curving hornlets bending back to barely touch the frill opening. The horn, made entirely of bone and covered with keratin, is either pointing backwards or forwards depending on species. None of the 2 dinosaurs have tusks in their mouths and above all, these dinosaurs are native only to North America. No traces of ceratopsian remains has ever been found in Africa. The actual Emela-ntouka, as described by the people who claimed to have seen the creature, actually look like this:
It's a half elephant, half rhinoceros with a reptilian tail attached to it. In no way does it resemble any known ceratopsian in every way. It may have been the same as the second one, known as Chipekwe, which was reportedly killed by a tribe of Wa-Ushi natives in 1933.
"In December, 1919, the London Daily Mail published a letter from C.G. James, who had lived in what is now Zambia. He reported on an enormous beast with a single ivory horn living in the waters of Lakes Bangweulu and the surrounding lakes and swamps. James said this animal was called "Chipekwe" by the natives. The same creature is also mentioned in both Millais' 1924 book Far Away Up the Nile, and Hughes' 1933 volume Eighteen Years on Lake Bangweulu. The latter describes Wa-Ushi tribesmen actually killing such a creature along the Luapula River that leads to Lake Bangweulu. They detailed how its smooth body was armed with a single horn fixed like that of a rhinoceros, but composed of smooth white, highly-polished ivory. Hughes tells of a hippo that was said to be killed by a Chipekwe. The throat was torn out. (Hughes, 1933, p. 146.) Indigenous peoples near Lake Edward in Zaire, call this same creature "Irizima" and refer to it as a "gigantic hippopotamus with the horns of a rhinoceros on its head."
Real ceratopsians have beaks like parrots and horns made of bone covered with keratin. Their skin is made up of rough pebbly scales in great contrast to the smooth skin of the elephant mutant as I would rather regard Emela-ntouka/Chipekwe as. One ceratopsian, Psittacosaurus, has a tail that's covered with porcupine-like spines. It is not known if all ceratopsians have porcupine spines on their tails, though. The description of the mutant elephant/rhino cryptid is never mentioned to have a bony neck frill and is known to kill elephants and hippos when provoked. Still, Woetzel asserts they're ceratopsians and once again mentions the Bambara people who sculpted iron figurines of what Woetzel falsely regards as Chasmosaurus while being blind to the reality of seeing these sculptures actually depicting antelopes representing the African Hero Chi-Wara.
The second claim is of an alleged sighting of an elephant-sized cryptid known as "Ngoubou", a creature Woetzel wrongly asserts to be a Triceratops in the Non-Existent Ceratopsian of Central Africa article while another creationist named Bill Gibbons asserts the creature to be a Styracosaurus because it's described to have 6 horns growing on top of its neck frill while the real Styracosaurus has 6 huge spikes growing at the top of the bony frill, a row of small spikes jutting from each side of the frill, two small horns above the eyes, and one large horn growing on its nose. The description about "Ngoubou", whose name is sometimes spelled as "Ngoubu", fails to mention the fact that "Ngoubu" is not at all a ceratopsian dinosaur, but a mammalian rhino-like creature that has a tail of an elephant and gives birth to live young unlike real ceratopsians that have reptilian tails and laid hard shelled eggs. "Ngoubu" is exactly the same as Ngoubou, which Woetzel asserts to be a different species of Emela-ntouka/Chipekwe in which Woetzel, without reason, stupidly assumes it to be a male Triceratops with the largest frill. He asserts that this is the same creature as Emela-ntouka which the observers alleged to only saw in ether single-horned or younger juvenile forms. Never mind the real Triceratops being much bigger than an ox and always having just three horns on its face, not on the frill, from the day it hatched until its last breath.
All ceratopsian fossils belonging to centrosaurines and Ceratopsinae groups, including Chasmosaurus, Triceratops, Styracosaurus, Centrosaurus, and Monoclonius have been found in North America. Never for once were ceratopsian remains found in Africa. Remember, in order for cryptids like Emela-ntouka/Chipekwe to exist, there should be evidence of fully intact bodies, skeletal remains dated above the Mesozoic strata, and other types of evidence like them. But none are ever found.
Continued next post….